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Cancerul mamar 2 Anatomie Before getting into symptoms of breast cancer and screening for breast cancer, I think it is appropriate to talk just a little bit about the normal physiology and anatomy of the breast. The breast is a sebaceous gland that is composed primarily of fatty tissue.

Cancer de prostată

For purposes of description, the external structure of the breast can be divided into 4 quadrants: the Upper inner quadrant, the lower inner quadrant, the lower outer quadrant and the upper outer quadrant. The upper-outer quadrant of the breast is thicker than the remainder of the breast. This quadrant contains a greater bulk of mammary tissue than the other quadrants and both benign and malignant tumors occur most frequently there. The breast borders are probably more extensive than you realize.

The upper border prostate cancer statistics breast tissue begins at the collarbone. The lower border is at the base of a properly fitted bra.

The inner border is the edge of the sternum and the outer border is the anterior axillary line which is the underarm or arm pit. Some women have tails or axillary projections of breast tissue that extend further than the anterior axillary lines into the armpit.

It is important this this area be included in the breast self-examination.

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Each lobe has a collection of ducts that empty into central ducts. And the central ducts empty into lactiferous or the milk prostate cancer statistics ducts of the nipple. As Sherry discussed, the primary tumor of breast cancers are usually described as lobular or ductal. It is second only to lung cancer.

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The lifetime risk of breast cancer is 1 in 8 women or Women who have a first-degree prostate cancer statistics a mother or sister who have developed breast cancer are at an increased risk themselves of developing the disease. The degree of this risk is affected by the age of her relative at diagnosis.

If the relative was pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis, then her own risk is greatest. The risk of breast cancer also corresponds to exposure to both endogenous and exogenous estrogen. The longer the menstrual history the greater the prostate cancer statistics. Both early menarche and late menopause prostate cancer statistics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Females who begin menstruation at the age of 12 or younger are at greater risk than those who begin after the age of The risk for women who undergo menopause prior to the age of 45 is about half that of women who undergo menopause after the age off Pregnancy has alternating impacts on the risk of breast cancer.

During pregnancy, women are at a higher risk of prostate cancer statistics breast cancer. However, once the pregnancy is complete, the risk of breast cancer goes down.

Translation of "cancerul de prostată" in English

Women who have their first child after the age of 30 have a greater risk of breast cancer than those who have children at a younger age.

Many women decline to obtain a mammogram due to misconceptions about the risk of radiation exposure during mammography. However, radiation exposure with mammography is negligible. An no studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer just from the amount of radiation used in mammography.

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Women with atypical hyperplasia of the breast, a proliferative benign breast disease, are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Intraductal and Intralobular carcinoma in situ or primary breast tumors that are at the time confined to the breast are considered risk factors for invasive breast cancer.

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Intraductal carcinoma in situ is often treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation. For intralobular carcinoma in situ, it is very common for these patients to simply be watched carefully, rather that treated.

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Obesity The evidence of an environmental or dietary effect on breast cancer is supported by observations in Japanese American women. The risk of breast cancer is lower in Japan. However, the risk of breast cancer prostate cancer statistics Japanese women who move to prostate cancer statistics US approaches that of women born in the US. This was once proposed to be due to the increased fat content of the American diet.

However, this has not shown to be true with groups eating low fat diets. Currently, there is no clear link between dietary fat and breast cancer.

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There is a slight increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol intake. Familial breast cancers or breast cancers that seem to run in families have been linked to mutations in the BRCA-1 gene. In non-familial breast cancer, or sporadic cases, they rarely find mutations in BRCA BRCA-1 mutations have also been linked to ovarian cancer. Mutations in BRCA-2 have been linked to both male and female familial breast cancers- but not ovarian cancer.

P53 and Rb-1 are prostate cancer statistics suppressor genes. Mutations in these have also been prostatitis gpc to breast cancer.

Cancer de prostată - Wikipedia

Amplifications and mutations in these oncogenes have also been linked to breast cancer. Breast tumors can produce puckering, dimpling, or retractions by disrupting underlying structures. Also, if a tumor is blocking the lymphatic drainage, the pores of the breast skin may become more prominent. This results in an orange peel appearance.

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In breast self-exam, the nipple should always be squeezed to check for discharge. Any new discharge should be reported to the physician. A milky or clear discharge can be a normal finding in women anytime following childbirth. Greenish discharges are often a sign of mastitis and infection. A bloody discharge is strongly suggestive of breast cancer and should be reported immediately.

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It is normal for an adult breast to feel granular, nodular, or lumpy especially premenstrually. However, any new mass or enlargement of an existing mass should be reported to a physician. Breast cancers tend to be hard, with no clear borders and immobile attached to skin or underlying structures.

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A retracted or inverted nipple can be normal and in itself is not a problem. However the recent inversion of a nipple could be a sign of breast cancer.

These are clinical exam by a physician or nurse, mammography, and monthly breast self exam.